Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud by Max Halberstadt, {{circa}} 1921<ref>{{cite web |last=Halberstadt |first=Max |url=https://www.loc.gov/item/98514770/ |title=Sigmund Freud, half-length portrait, facing left, holding cigar in right hand |date=c. 1921 |website=[[Library of Congress]] |accessdate=June 8, 2017 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171228054049/https://www.loc.gov/item/98514770/ |archivedate=28 December 2017 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> Sigmund Freud ( ; ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis. He died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939.

In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud's redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression. On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego. Freud postulated the existence of libido, a sexualised energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt. In his later works, Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.

Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy, and across the humanities. It thus continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause. Nonetheless, Freud's work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden's 1940 poetic tribute to Freud, he had created "a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives." Provided by Wikipedia
1
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1893
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Zur Kenntniss der cerebralen Diplegien des Kinderalters....
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2
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1922
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Traumdeutung. 7. Aufl....
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3
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1901
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens. [1.]- Aufl....
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4
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1917
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Psychopathology of everyday life. Authorized English ed....
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5
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1917
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens. 5. Aufl....
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6
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1906
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Works. Selections. 1906. Sammlung kleiner Schriften zur Neurosenlehre ......
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7
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1920
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Totem und Tabu. 2. Aufl....
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8
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1905
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewussten....
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9
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1914
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Traumdeutung. 4. verm. Aufl., mit Beiträgen....
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10
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1916
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewussten. English. Wit and its relation...
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11
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1921
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Jenseits des Lustprinzips. 2., durchgesehene Aufl., 2.-4. Tausend....
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12
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1909
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Sammlung kleiner Schriften zur Neurosenlehre. 2. Folge....
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13
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1920
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Jenseits des Lustprinzips....
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14
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1914
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Psychopathology of everyday life. Authorized English ed...
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15
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1904
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens....
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16
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1911
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Über den Traum. 2. Aufl....
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17
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1920
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Zur Psychopathologie des Alltagslebens. 7. weiter verm. Aufl....
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18
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1915
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie. 3., verm. Aufl....
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19
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1885
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Über Coca....
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20
by Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939.
Published 1891
...Freud, Sigmund, 1856-1939. Zur Auffassung der Aphasien....
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