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When New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Queensland, South Australia, and Western Australia were united by the British Parliament to form the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901, responsible government in the British tradition was grafted on a federal base, but the new government did not attain, or desire, complete independence. Australia's new "dominion status" resulted from a unique blend of factors that produced a nation and a nationalism within the imperial framework. Part 1 examines the chief factors during 1880-86: fear of British decline, formation of the Australian Federal Council, military and naval integration, large capital flow from Britain, and the importance of Australian markets. Trainor then analyzes the years 1887-94 when imperialistic rhetoric accommodated a degree of nationalism based on dispossession of the Aborigines, subimperialism in the Pacific, "a strong masculinism," and the continued connection and protection of British capital investment. Part 3 studies concern about Asian immigration, participation in the Anglo-Boer War, and the strong influence of Joseph Chamberlain's Colonial Office with its plans for a new imperial federation. Part 4 traces basic historiographical trends and various imperial models. This well-documented volume contributes greatly to understanding Australia's national development and its role in the evolution of the British Empire/Commonwealth. Advanced undergraduates and up. W. W. Reinhardt; Randolph-Macon College
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