Pope Julius IIPope Julius II (; ) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was head of the Roman Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to 1513. Nicknamed the ''Warrior Pope'' or the ''Fearsome Pope'', he chose his papal name not in honor of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar. One of the most powerful and influential popes, Julius II was a central figure of the High Renaissance and left a significant mark in world history.
Julius II centralized the Papal States and created the Swiss Guards. He was a great patron of the arts, and commissioned the Raphael Rooms and Michelangelo's paintings in the Sistine Chapel. Julius II ratified the Treaty of Tordesillas between Castile and Portugal, establishing the first bishoprics in the Americas and beginning the catholicization of Latin America. In 1508, he decreed that the Imperial election was sufficient to use the title of Holy Roman Emperor in absence of Papal coronation. Julius II opposed the conciliarist movement promoted by foreign monarchs, and affirmed ultramontanism at the Fifth Lateran Council. In Italy, he crushed the Borgias and proved a bulwark against Venetian expansionism. Pope Julius II commissioned the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica and practised the selling of indulgences: Martin Luther's visit to Rome occurred during the pontificate of Julius II.
Julius II became Pope in the context of the Italian wars, shortly after France occupied the Duchy of Milan and Spanish troops arrived in the Kingdom of Naples. With France taking over the North of Italy after defeating Venice at the Battle of Agnadello and Ferdinand of Spain becoming King of Naples, Julius II planned to "free Italy from the barbarians" and orchestrated the recapture of the peninsula. After Ferdinand of Aragon recognized the Kingdom of Naples as a Papal fief with a cardinal as viceroy, Julius II personally led the Papal armed forces at the Battle of Mirandola and forced the French of Louis XII out of Italy by forming an anti-French "Holy League" with several European states.
Julius II planned to call for a crusade against the Ottoman Empire in order to retake Constantinople. His death caused the collapse of the Holy League, and Italy returned to the French-Spanish status quo ante bellum with the treaty of Brussels (1516). Nevertheless, the Papal States remained independent and centralized as a result of his policies, continued by Leo X. Julius II was described as the ideal Prince by Machiavelli. In his Julius Excluded from Heaven, the scholar Erasmus of Rotterdam described a Pope Julius II in the after-life planning to capture the Paradise. Provided by Wikipedia
La rive gauche du Rhin de 1792 [i.e. dix-sept cent quatre-vingt-douze] à 1814 [i.e. dix-huit cent quatorze] /“...Rovère, Julien. Rive gauche du Rhin de 1792 [i.e. dix-sept cent quatre-vingt-douze] à 1814 [i...”
“...Rovère, Julien. Affaire de Saverne, novembre 1913-janvier 1914....”
by Rovère, Julien.“...Rovère, Julien. Survivances françaises dans l'Allemagne napoléonienne 1815-1914....”