Rosa Parks

Rosa Parks in 1955, with [[Martin Luther King Jr.]] in the background Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an American activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery bus boycott. The United States Congress has called her "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement".

On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks rejected bus driver James F. Blake's order to relinquish her seat in the "colored section" to a white passenger, after the whites-only section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation, but the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) believed that she was the best candidate for seeing through a court challenge after her arrest for civil disobedience in violating Alabama segregation laws. Parks' prominence in the community and her willingness to become a controversial figure inspired the black community to boycott the Montgomery buses for over a year, the first major direct action campaign of the post-war civil rights movement. Her case became bogged down in the state courts, but the federal Montgomery bus lawsuit ''Browder v. Gayle'' succeeded in November 1956.

Parks' act of defiance and the Montgomery bus boycott became important symbols of the movement. She became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation. She organized and collaborated with civil rights leaders, including Edgar Nixon, president of the local chapter of the NAACP; and Martin Luther King, Jr., a new minister in Montgomery who gained national prominence in the civil rights movement and went on to win a Nobel Peace Prize.

At the time, Parks was secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. She had recently attended the Highlander Folk School, a Tennessee center for training activists for workers' rights and racial equality. She acted as a private citizen "tired of giving in". Although widely honored in later years, she also suffered for her act; she was fired from her job as a seamstress in a local department store, and received death threats for years afterwards.

Shortly after the boycott, she moved to Detroit, where she briefly found similar work. From 1965 to 1988 she served as secretary and receptionist to John Conyers, an African-American US Representative. She was also active in the Black Power movement and the support of political prisoners in the US.

After retirement, Parks wrote her autobiography and continued to insist that the struggle for justice was not over and there was more work to be done. In her final years, she suffered from dementia. Parks received national recognition, including the NAACP's 1979 Spingarn Medal, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Congressional Gold Medal, and a posthumous statue in the United States Capitol's National Statuary Hall. Upon her death in 2005, she was the first woman to lie in honor in the Capitol Rotunda, becoming the third of only four Americans to ever receive this honor. California and Missouri commemorate Rosa Parks Day on her birthday February 4, while Ohio and Oregon commemorate the occasion on the anniversary of the day she was arrested, December 1. Provided by Wikipedia
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by Parks, Rosa, 1913-
Published 1992
Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005...
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (IECdb)3276)
Book
2
by Parks, Rosa, 1913-
Published 1983
Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-...
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (SAIdb)44959)
Spoken Word Recording Audiocassette
3
by Parks, Rosa, 1913-
Published 1984
Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-...
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (UIUdb)3474616)
Book
4
by Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005.
Published 2000
Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005 Juvenile literature....
Book
5
by Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005,
Published 2017
Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005....
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (CODdb)295269)
Book
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by Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005.
Published 1997
Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005 Juvenile literature....
Book
7
by Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005.
Published 1996
Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005 Correspondence Juvenile literature....
Book
8
by Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005.
Published 1994
Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005. Biography Juvenile literature....
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (MONdb)161169, (WIUdb)659438)
Book
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by Macdonald, Fiona, 1958-
Published 1988
Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005....
Book
12
Published 1996
Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-...
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (COLdb)242379)
Movie VHS
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Published 1975
Other Authors: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005....
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (SICdb)1288972)
Movie VHS
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Published 1999
Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005 Songs and music....
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (WIUdb)906580)
Music Recording Electronic
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Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005....
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (SAIdb)194174)
Music Recording Audio CD
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Published 2014
Subjects: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005 Songs and music....
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (WIUdb)1195009)
Music Recording Electronic
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by Cooper, David J.
Published 2003
Other Authors: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005....
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (DPUdb)519088)
Book
18
Other Authors: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005....
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (SAIdb)194188)
Music Recording Audio CD
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Published 2002
Other Authors: '; ...Parks, Rosa, 1913-2005....
(CARLI) (Other Sources: (COLdb)381039)
Spoken Word Recording Audio CD
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